Samurai life in the 1800s

Title: Samurai with Long Bow

Artist/Maker: Felice Beato (English, born Italy, 1832 – 1909)

Place: Japan (Place created)

Date: 1863

A samurai kneels on the ground, drawing a longbow (yumi). Arrows are visible over his shoulder, and a sword hangs at his waist.

 
 

Title: Samurai with Raised Sword

Artist/Maker: Felice Beato (English, born Italy, 1832 – 1909)

Place: Japan (Place created)

Date: 1863

The Bakumatsu period marked the end of the samurai military class. Following the restoration of imperial rule in 1868, domains governed by feudal lords and their samurai were replaced by modern prefectures administrated by governors. The traditional class system was abolished, including such rituals as sword carrying and styles such as the traditional topknot, a haircut featuring a partially shaved head with the remaining hair pulled into a small ponytail.

 
 

Title: Samurai in Armour

Artist/Maker: Kusakabe Kimbei (Japanese, 1841 – 1934, active 1880s – about 1912)

Culture: Japanese

Place: Japan, Asia (Place created)

Date: 1870s – 1890s

Three men in elaborate Samurai outfits, helmets, and armor. One man stands while holding a large bow and arrow, while the other two men sit, holding a sword and pole, respectively.

 
 

Title: Samurai with Jousting Pole

Artist/Maker: Felice Beato (English, born Italy, 1832 – 1909)

Place: Japan (Place created)

Date: 1863–1868

A samurai wearing full armor holds a pole or staff weapon. He has a sword strapped to his waist and wears a full face helmet (kabuto).

 
 

Title: Samurai Costume – Back view

Artist/Maker: Felice Beato (English, born Italy, 1832 – 1909)

Place: Japan (Place created)

Date: 1863–1868

A samurai facing away from the camera showing the back of his Tosei-gusoku armor. He wears a helmet (kabuto), and has a sword strapped to his waist.

 
 

Title: Samurai

Artist/Maker: Kusakabe Kimbei (Japanese, 1841 – 1934, active 1880s – about 1912)

Culture: Japanese

Place: Japan, Asia (Place created)

Date: 1870s – 1890s

A man in an elaborate robe and apron, holding two swords.

 
 

Title: Portrait of the Satsuma Clan Envoys

Artist/Maker: Felice Beato (English, born Italy, 1832 – 1909)

Place: Japan (Place created)

Date: November 1863

In late 1863 a delegation of four samurai from the Satsuma clan came to Yokohama to negotiate an indemnity with the British diplomats for the murder of an English merchant in September 1862, as well as to normalize relations between their clan and Britain. In this portrait, Beato captured the samurai’s mood of defiance and the tension of the time.
 
 

Title: Koboto Santaro

Artist/Maker: Felice Beato (English, born Italy, 1832 – 1909)

Place: Japan (Place created)

Date: negative 1863; print 1868

This image shows the traditional armored costume of the samurai, the soldier of noble class who served the powerful rulers of Japan.

Information and images taken from the site Paul Getty Museum

Samurai armors displayed at the metropolitan museum

Armorer: Helmet signed by Bamen Tomotsugu (Japanese, Eichizan province, Toyohara, active 18th century)
Date: 18th century
Geography: Toyohara, Okinawa prefecture
Culture: Japanese, Toyohara, Eichizan province
Medium: Iron, lacquer, copper-gold alloy (shakudō), silver, silk, horse hair, ivory
Dimensions: as mounted, H. 58 5/8 in. (148.8 cm); W. 18 3/4 in. (47.6 cm)
Classification: Armor for Man
Credit Line: Gift of Etsuko O. Morris and John H. Morris Jr., in memory of Dr. Frederick M. Pedersen, 2001

 
The workmanship of this armor and its materials are of the highest quality. It features a kusazuri (skirt) with an extremely rare color scheme of silk lacings in red, yellowish-green, black, and white. The mon (heraldic badge), in the form of three whirling commas (mitsudomoe mon), is that of the Okabe family, feudal lords of Kishiwada (present day Kishiwada City in Osaka Prefecture). The armor is signed on the inside of the helmet: Eichizan no Kuni Toyohara jū Bamen Tomotsugu Saku (Bamen Tomotsugu living in Eichizan province, Toyohara village). Bamen Tomotsugu was the leading armorer of the Bamen school in the eighteenth century. Complete armors signed by him are extremely rare.
 

Date: 18th century and 16th century
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, copper, copper-gold alloy (shakudō), gold, lacquer, silk, linen, felt, leather, horsehair, doeskin
Dimensions: as mounted with L.2004.41.1c, e–o and L.2015.44.1, H. 40 in. (101.6 cm); W. 20 1/2 in. (52.1 cm); D. 17 1/2 in. (44.5 cm). Wt. 9 lb. 13.2 oz. (4456.5 g)
Classification: Armor Parts
Credit Line: Lent by Etsuko O. Morris and John H. Morris Jr., 2015

The breastplate of this armor is overlaid with a tooled, gilded, and painted piece of leather likely imported from Holland, reflecting the growing interest in European culture and goods in Japan in the eighteenth century, and the creative ways in which this interest was manifested in armorers’ art. Decorative European leather, often originally intended as a wall covering, was used to embellish a range of equipment, including sword mountings and equestrian tacks.
 
 

 

Date: early 14th century
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, lacquer, leather, silk, gilt copper
Dimensions: H. 37 1/2 in. (95.3 cm); W. 22 in. (55.9 cm); Wt. 25 lb. 15 oz. (11.77 kg)
Classification: Armor for Man
Credit Line: Gift of Bashford Dean, 1914
This is a rare example of a medieval yoroi. The yoroi is characterized by a cuirass that wraps around the body and is closed by a separate panel (waidate) on the right side and by a deep four-sided skirt. In use from around the tenth to the fourteenth century, yoroiwere generally worn by warriors on horseback.

Originally, this armor was laced in white silk and had diagonal bands of multicolored lacings at the edges of the skirt and the sode (shoulder guards, missing here). The colored lacings symbolized the rainbow, which represented both good fortune and fleeting beauty. The breastplate is covered with stenciled leather bearing the image of the powerful Buddhist deity Fudō Myō-ō, whose fierce mien and attributes of calmness and inner strength were highly prized by the samurai.
Traditionally, it is believed that this yoroi was donated to the Shinomura Hachimangū , a shrine near Kyoto, by Ashikaga Takauji (1305–1358), founder of the Ashikaga shogunate.
 

Armorer: Armor inscribed Myōchin Muneakira (Japanese, Edo period, 1673–1745)
Armorer: Helmet inscribed Saotome Ietada (Japanese, active late 16th century)
Restorer/Conservator: Restorations by Hiromichi Miura (Japanese, b. 1938)
Date: 1717 and late 16th century; restorations, 2015
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, copper, copper-gold alloy (shakudō), gold, silver, horn, leather, silk
Dimensions: as mounted, H. 58 in. (147.3 cm); W. 28 1/2 in. (72.4 cm); D. 22 1/4 in. (56.5 cm); Wt. excluding helmet 27 lb. 15.7 oz. (12.7 kg)
Classification: Armor for Man
Credit Line: Lent by Etsuko O. Morris and John H. Morris Jr., 2015

 Armor embossed in high relief came into vogue in the eighteenth century, a period of peace and stability under Tokugawa rule. With less concern about battlefield functionality, armorers explored new decorative possibilities, including embossing, a technique that would have compromised the armor’s defensive qualities, since it created catch points for an opponent’s weapons. The Myōchin, among the most well-known armor-making families of the period, specialized in this difficult but spectacular technique.

Armorer: Helmet bowl signed Saotome Iyetada (Japanese, Edo period, active early–mid-19th century)
Armorer: Breastplate inscribed inside, Myōchin Munesuke (Japanese, Edo period, 1688–1735)
Date: 16th and 18th centuries
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, lacquer, silk, gilt copper
Dimensions: H. 67 1/2 in. (171.5 cm)
Classification: Armor for Man
Credit Line: Gift of Bashford Dean, 1914

This example comes from the armory of Date Yoshimura (1703–1746), daimyo (lord) of Sendai. The helmet bowl, signed Saotome Iye[tada?], dates from the sixteenth century; the remainder of the armor was constructed in the eighteenth century. The breastplate is inscribed inside with the armorer’s name, Myōchin Munesuke (1688–1735). The embossed ornament on the solid iron plates is characteristic of the Myōchin school.
 
 
 

 
Date: probably late 18th–early 19th century

Culture: Japanese, Edo period (1615–1868)
Medium: Iron, silver, gold, copper alloy, leather, wood, textile
Dimensions: H. of cuirass 14 3/16 in. (36 cm)
Classification: Armor for Man
Credit Line: Purchase, Gift of Thomas Mendenhall, by exchange, 2006

The lavish decoration of this cuirass focuses on the theme of archery. The silver character yumi in the center of the breastplate is Japanese for “bow.” Below, there is a golden arrow entwined by dragons. A large sachihoko, a mythological animal that could control rain and therefore create favorable conditions for the use of bow and arrow, is depicted in silver and gold on the backplate.
 

Maker: Inscribed by Myōchin Muneakira (Japanese, Edo period, 1673–1745)
Date: dated 1745
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, lacquer, textile (silk)
Dimensions: L. 9 1/2 in. (24.1 cm); W. 7 in. (17.8 cm)
Classification: Armor Parts-Masks
Credit Line: Rogers Fund, 1919

Muneakira’s masterpiece, this mask by Muneakira was already famous when it was first published in 1763. It represents Jikokuten, guardian of the East, one of the Four Kings of Heaven. The mask is also one of the few to retain its original silk head covering sewn to the upper edges.
 
 
 

Date: late 18th–19th century
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, lacquer, gold, silver, copper alloy, leather, silk
Dimensions: as mounted: H. 54 1/2 in. (138.4 cm); W. 22 1/2 in. (57.2 cm); D. 20 1/2 in. (52.1 cm)
Classification: Armor for Man
Credit Line: armor: Gift of Bashford Dean, 1914; helmet horns (kuwagata): Bequest of George C. Stone, 1935

The breastplate is embossed in high relief with designs featuring a dragon and clouds.
 
 
 
 

Date: 18th century
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, lacquer, gold, copper alloy, copper-gold alloy (shakudō), leather, silk
Dimensions: as mounted: H. 55 in. (139.7 cm); W. 29 in. (73.4 cm); D. 21 in. (53.3 cm); Wt. approx. 48 lb. (21.8 kg)
Classification: Armor for Man
Credit Line: Rogers Fund, 1904

The armor is decorated in several places with the plum blossom mon (heraldic emblem) of the Maeda family, who were daimyo (feudal lords) of Kaga Province (the southern part of present-day Ishikawa Prefecture) and the second largest landowners in Japan after the Tokugawa family.
 
 
 

Date: 18th century
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, lacquer, gold, silver, copper alloy, leather, silk
Dimensions: as mounted: H. 54 1/2 in. (138.4 cm); W. 33 in. (83.8 cm); D. 21 in. (53.3 cm)
Classification: Armor for Man
Credit Line: Rogers Fund, 1904

The helmet crest (maidate) has a gilt-copper moon flanked by rising silver waves. The shoulder guards (sode) are decorated in gold lacquer with the image of a rabbit springing from seafoam, possibly a reference to Chikubushima, a popular Noh play.
 
 
 
 
 

Date: early 14th–early 15th century
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, leather, lacquer, silk, gilt copper
Dimensions: H. 27 1/2 in. (69.9 cm); W. 17 in. (43.2 cm)
Classification: Armor for Man
Credit Line: Fletcher Fund, 1928

This armor was donated to the Kurama Temple, near Kyoto, by one of the Ashikaga shoguns. During the late Edo period, it passed into the possession of Sakai, daimyo (lord) of Wakasa, then military governor of Kyoto. Sakai had the armor refurbished and its silk lacings replaced with leather ones in the syle of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The oldest part of the armor, the helmet bowl, dates from the late Kamakura period (early fourteenth century).
 
 
 

Date: ca. 1550
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, leather, lacquer, silk, gilt copper
Dimensions: H. 35 1/2 in. (90.2 cm); W. 22 in. (55.9 cm); Wt. 23 lb. 9 oz. (10.7 kg)
Classification: Armor for Man-1/2 Armor
Credit Line: Gift of Bashford Dean, 1914

This armor is believed to have been given by Date Masamune (died 1636), one of the most famous daimyo (lords) of his time, to a high-ranking samurai in his service, Shiraishi Bungo.
 
 
 
 

Restorer/Conservator: Restorations by Hiromichi Miura (Japanese, b. 1938)
Date: 17th century; restorations, 2015
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, leather, lacquer, gold, copper, silver, textile, silk
Dimensions: as mounted, H. 68 1/2 in. (174 cm); W. 24 in. (61 cm); D. 22 in. (55.9 cm)
Classification: Armor for Man
Credit Line: Lent by Etsuko O. Morris and John H. Morris Jr., 2015

The breastplate and backplate of this distinctive armor are constructed of hinged iron plates. This design affords a similar degree of protection as solid-plate armor but provides greater flexibility and a closer fit for the wearer. Hinged cuirasses of the seventeenth century are rare, and were among the most expensive and time-consuming types of armor to produce. They are believed to have been used primarily by the Uesugi family and associated domains.
 

Date: 16th century
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, lacquer, leather, silk, gold, copper
Dimensions: as mounted, H. 23 1/4 in. (59.1 cm); W. 20 1/2 in. (52.1 cm); D. 15 in. (38.1 cm)
Classification: Armor Parts-Cuirasses
Credit Line: Lent by Etsuko O. Morris and John H. Morris Jr., 2004

The dō-maru is a close-fitting cuirass with a multisection skirt developed to meet the demand for lighter armor. Of lamellar construction and fastening on the right side, the dō-maru was initially worn in feudal Japan by foot soldiers armed with staff weapons. By the Muromachi period (1392–1573), however, it gained widespread popularity among men of all ranks as foot combat in close quarters became the predominant form of warfare. With its green, white, and vermillion lacing, this cuirass is a rare and fine example from that time.

Date: 19th century
Culture: Japanese
Medium: Iron, leather, lacquer, silk, copper alloy
Dimensions: as mounted, approx.: H. 77 in. (195.6 cm); W. 26 in. (66 cm); D. 16 1/2 in. (41.9 cm)
Classification: Armor for Man
Credit Line: Rogers Fund, 1904

Although constructed in the traditional sixteenth-century gusoku (complete set) fashion, this is actually an example of the revival of earlier armor styles during the Edo period. It was part of the large collection of Japanese arms and armor formed by Arms and Armor Department founding curator Bashford Dean around 1900, during his extended stays in Japan for scientific research. The armor was included in the Metropolitan Museum’s 1903 loan exhibition of Japanese arms and armor from Dean’s private collection, which the Museum purchased in 1904.
Information and images taken from the site Metropolitan Museum
 
 

Omiya Inn

The Tokugawa shogunate had fallen. A new era was dawning, not in small part thanks to Sakamoto Ryoma. But when one induces a monumental turn in history, one tends to make enemies. Though the pro-loyalists had succeeded in removing power from the shogunate, Tokugawa loyalist remained operative in Japan. On December 10, 1867, a group of assassins made their way to Omiya Inn where Ryoma and Nakaoka Shintaro were staying. Met at the door by Ryoma’s ex-sumo wrestler bodyguard, the assassin presented himself as an ordinary guest who wished to see the famed swordsman. When the bodyguard turned to see if his master was accepting guests, the assassin cut him down and the rest of his compatriots advanced on the upper floor where Ryoma was staying. Ryoma, hearing the noise but thinking little of it, was caught off guard. The room erupted into chaos. Lamps were overturned and the room was reduced to darkness. Both Ryoma and Nakaoka suffered fatal wounds from the altercations. Ryoma died that night, and Nakaoka followed two days later. The Shinsengumi, Tokugawa’s police force in the Gion district, were later implicated in the crime, and their leader, Kondo Isami was executed for it. An ex-member of another Tokugawa force, the Kyoto Mimawarigumi later confessed to the assassination. To this day, historians are unable to determine conclusively who, exactly, was responsible for Ryoma’s death.
The original Omiya Inn, the site of Ryoma’s assassination no longer exists. Its former location is marked by a memorial outside of a convenience store on Kawaramachi Dori, in downtown Kyoto.
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Toei Uzumasa Park

Toei Uzumasa Park, or Toei Kyoto Studio Park, is an active film location dedicated to period movies and dramas. Over two hundred films and shows are shot on the location, which has permanent set fixtures depicting Edo period landscapes and streets. The park offers visitors the chance to go back in history to experience what it might have been like to live in the Edo period by allowing guests to wander the set and dress up in period clothing.
 

Публикация от ORIN (@maromaroge)


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Ryozen Museum of History

The Ryozen Museum of History is dedicated to the events and artifacts of the Bakumatsu–the end of the Bakufu period, which led to the Meiji Restoration. Located in the Gion district, the museum houses several artifacts from the period, as well as a gift shop selling Ryoma and Shinsengumi items. Unfortunately, the museum does not offer English descriptions of its displays.


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Hachidai Jinja

In 1604, four years after his involvement in the battle of Sekigahara, Miyamoto Musashi, one of Japan’s most famous swordsmen, challenged Yoshioka Seijuro, the head of the Yoshioka school of kenjitsu, to a duel. The Yoshioka school was one of the eight major kenjitsu schools called the Kyohachiryu, and defeating their head in a duel would cement Musashi’s legacy as one of the premier swordsmen in Japan. The duel was fought with wooden swords, and when Musashi struck Seijuro’s shoulder, breaking his arm, he was declared the winner. Seijuro later retired as the head of the school, leaving it in the hands of Yoshioka Denshichiro who quickly challenged Musashi to another duel, this time to the death. Musashi made short work of Denshichiro, killing him with a blow to the head with his wooden sword. This left the school in the hands of twelve year-old Yoshioka Matashichiro who likewise challenged Musashi to a duel, at night, outside of Hachida Jinja. Suspicious of the odd timing of the duel, Musashi arrived earlier than the appointed time and found Matashichiro surrounded by a small personal army bent on ambushing the swordsman. Having none of this, Musashi waited until an opportune moment to leap from his hiding place and run at the boy, cutting off his head. Surrounded by hostile swordsman, musketeers, and archers, Musashi drew his second sword and fled through the rice fields, cutting his way through with both blades. Thus, ni-ten ichiryu was born.

Публикация от @sh0ta_kun


Hachidai Jinja sits in northern Kyoto’s Sakyo-ku ward, in the Ichijoji district. Its out of the way location scenically located at the base of a mountain with several other temples along the incline makes it a perfect destination for travelers looking to experience some of old Kyoto without the bustle of tourists. A piece of the Sagarimatsu, an ancient pine tree used as a waypoint for travellers in feudal Japan is preserved here. It was at this pine tree that Musashi defeated the Yoshioka school once and for all. Decedents of this pine are carefully cultivated near the original location, just down the street from Hachidai Jinja.


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Gesshin-In temple

In 1867, Ito Kashitaro, a senior officer of the Shinsengumi broke off from the famous Kyoto Bakufu police force to form his own organization called The Guardians of the Imperial Tomb. This group withdrew to operate out of Gessin-In in southern Higashiyama. This new group was Imperialist in opposition to the Shinsengumi, and for their defection, they were hunted down and killed by the remaining Shinsengumi.


The exact details of the betrayal and the executions are unknown, however it is speculated that Saito Hajime, a captain of the Shinsengumi charged with routing out spies, was sent to infiltrate The Guardians of the Imperial Tomb. This however may be a conflation of his duties to ferret out spies within the Shinsengumi. Whether or not he was charged with spying on traitors is not within credible historical records.


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Ikedaya Inn

In the dying days of the Edo period, characterized by brutal conflicts between the Bakufu and pro-Imperial loyalists, Emperor Komei sought a peaceful reunification via an alliance between the Imperial Court and the Tokugawa Shogunate. The peaceful resolution to a centuries old conflict was an idealistic and overly ambitious goal for a nation weakened by factitious civil conflicts and pressed by foreign interests. In Kyoto, the Bakufu’s elite police force, the Shinsengumi, fought to contain numerous plots and treasons from bands of ronin acting out vengeful aggressions and assassinations. One such incident took place at the Ikedaya Inn. Following the arrest of Shintaro Furutaka, samurai formerly employed by the Choshu and Tosa han gathered at the inn to plot a mass arson in Kyoto, starting with the Imperial Palace. Through historically disputed interrogation techniques, the Shinsengumi were able to extract this information from Shintaro and staged a raid against the pro-Imperial loyalists at Ikedaya Inn. Eight shishi were killed and twenty-three were arrested in the raid. It’s worth noting that the shishi claimed they were only plotting how to rescue Shintaro from the Shinsengumi, but historians are divided on all accounts of intent and method by both the shishi and the Shinsengumi.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Sanjo Bridge

Sanjo Bridge was a place where the samurai displayed the chopped heads of their arch-rivals. There are also reports that Hideyoshi Toyotomi (the samurai who built Osaka Castle) displayed the chopped heads of his adversaries on the bridge and threw the head of Sen no Rikyu (The founder of Tea Ceremony who later was charged with seppuku) under the bridge. No doubt, the bridge is most famous for being the last battle stage for Shinsengumi and the Choshu clan during the Bakumatsu period.

The second half of the 19th century was a turbulent time in Japan. Tensions between pro-Imperial loyalists and shogunate loyalists starkly divided the country. Old grudges from the founding of the Tokugawa regime continued to fester. The Mori clan, which had been defeated by Tokugawa Ieyasu at the battle of Sekigahara two hundred and fifty years earlier, now maneuvered for power with a series of loose alliances, calling themselves Choshu han. Unfortunately, the Choshu weren’t unified in their goals or methods. While some participated in violent anti-foreigner expulsions at the behest of the Emperor, others actively plotted against the Imperial palace in Kyoto. This had them declared enemies of the Imperial Court in 1866.

In September of that year, a signboard was erected at Sanjo Bridge, publicly announcing that the Choshu han were enemies of the state. Its placement was strategically significant, as Sanjo Bridge was historically the final leg of two of Japan’s “Five Routes” for travelers embarking on long journeys. Placing the indictment there ensured that it would be seen, and travel broadly across the country. This angered the Choshu who repeatedly tore down the sign whenever it was replaced. Finally, a detachment of Shinsengumi was sent to capture the vandals and bring them to justice. Thirty-four Shinsengumi were sent in three units. Two dressed as beggars on the side of the bridge, laying in wait. When eight samurai approached the sign to destroy it, three were brought down while the remaining five escaped.

If you go to the Sanjo Bridge from the Sanjo Shopping Street side (Starbucks would be on your left) the 2nd pole on your right still has the scratches from the last fight between the Choshu clan samurai and the Shinsengumi fighters. There is no explanation in English so you can stop by the Kyoto Samurai and Ninja Museum which is 3 minutes from the bridge to learn more about the samurai.

Sanjo bridge is also special as you can still see the supports under the bridge that are about 400 years old. In the Spring and summer, many people sit by the river and some musicians perform near the bridge. You get a very unique small town feeling passing on the bridge in the early evening anytime of the year.


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Terada Inn

March 8, 1866 was a night of well-deserved rest for master swordsman Sakamoto Ryoma. A pro-loyalist, he had just helped negotiated an alliance between Choshu and Satsuma–two clans with a long history of rivalry. The alliance was a big step toward finally ending the Tokugawa shogunate and Ryoma was taking his rest at Terada Inn along with his friend Miyoshi Shinzo. Unfortunately, the local Fushmi bugyo caught wind of the fact that a high profile pro-loyalist was staying at the inn, and sent twenty armed assailants to arrest him. Ryoma was, however, not caught off guard and although the inn was a tight space for fighting so many people, Ryoma and Miyoshi managed to fight them back with pistol and sword, long enough for the pair to escape out of a back entrance only mildly injured.


The Terada Inn was no stranger to conflicts between the pro-loyalist and Bakufu factions. Four years earlier the inn was the stage for the failed plans of a pro-loyalist uprising that came to nothing after daimyo Shimazu Hisamitsu discovered and foiled the plot. Today the Terada Inn sits in the southern Fushimi ward of Kyoto. Although the wooden structure has been reconstructed, it still bears the marks of Ryoma’s battle against the Bakufu patrolmen in bullet holes and sword cuts. The inn also features several bits of Ryoma memorabilia for interested guests to view, as well as the stunning traditional Japanese interior that so wonderfully preserves the atmosphere of old Japanese inns.

Публикация от myu (@myu2674)


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